Addiction remains a serious public health concern because of its associated health and related socio-economic impacts. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists interventions to reduce harm from substance abuse as a top priority. In 2009, tobacco and alcohol figured among the 10 leading risk factors internationally in terms of avoidable diseases, and contributed 3.7 and 4.4 percent respectively to the world burden of illness, while illicit substances accounted for 0.9 percent. More than 80 chronic and infectious diseases and injuries – including trauma, suicide, road accidents, neglect and family violence – are associated with the consumption of psychoactive addiction. Pathological gambling also leads to a number of significant problems such as financial hardship, illegal activities and loss of social support. Meanwhile, the global social costs (death, illness and economic burden) of substance abuse have reached alarming levels. Canada estimated such costs – excluding gambling – at $39.8 billion in 2002. Productivity losses, premature deaths and illnesses represent nearly two thirds of the social costs, followed by health care (22%) and legal expenditures (14%).