Otitis media with effusion (OME) is highly prevalent among young children. The precise pathophysiological mechanism, the long-term consequences, and the best treatment of OME remain unclear. The most important factor in overcoming OME seems to be maturation. Literature shows evidence of an infectious etiology of OME. But often articles are contradictory with regard to singular causative factors. So, although OME is correlated with various patient characteristics and socio-economic factors, none of these has been identified as the sole causative factor. This could be due to the fact that many studies have lumped all forms of OME together, instead of applying differentiation based on varying causative factors.