Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent progenitor cells isolated from bone marrow (BM) and other adult tissue including skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, synovium, the circulatory system, dental pulp, amniotic fluid, fetal blood and lung. Friedenstein and coworkers first reported the existence of adherent, fibroblast-like cells isolated from BM, and that these cells could differentiate into mesodermal lineage cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes in vitro and cadiomyocytes. Also, MSCs have been reported to differentiate into types of cells of endodermal and ectodermal lineages, including lung, retinal pigment, skin, sebaceous duct cells, renal tubular cells, and neural cells, hepatocytes and pancreatic islets. MSCs are characterized by plastic adherence, colony forming capacity, and the expression of the surface molecules CD73, CD90, and CD105 and the absence of the expression of hematopoietic lineage markers.
Recently, there have been reports indicating that MSCs secrete a variety of factors that promote tissue repair, stimulate proliferation and differentiation of endogenous tissue progenitors, and decrease inflammatory and immune reactions. MSCs have been shown to modulate immunological responses via T-cell suppression. The therapeutic benefit of MSCs extends to T cellmediated diseases such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), Crohnâs disease and the prevention of organ transplantation rejection. Moreover, MSCs have been observed to migrate to the site of injury in acute tissue injuries of kidney, liver, lung and heart.
Susumu Ikehara, Immunomodulatory Properties and Therapeutic Application of Bone Marrow Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Last date updated on March, 2021