Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Germ cells are the only type of cell that can transmit all genomic information to the next generation. Such cells have unique characteristics, being not only germline-competent but also serving as stem cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, germ cell lineages are predetermined. In contrast, in mammals, primordial germ cells, which are precursors of germ cells, are induced from multipotentepiblasts via extra-embryonic signaling. In avian species, however, the means by which germ cells are defined remain to be elucidated. Manipulation of germ cells is valuable in studies on germline development and in production of valuable cell lines. In birds, which lack germline-competent stem cells, genomic modulation of germ cells might serve to generate genetically modified poultry for both commercial applications and basic research. (Tae Sub Park, HyungChul Lee, DeivendranRengaraj and Jae Yong Han, Germ Cell, Stem Cell, and Genomic Modification in Birds)
Last date updated on October, 2020