Neuroimmunology is a field of science that combines neuroscience which is the study of the nervous system, and immunology which is the study of the immune system. The main goal of this rapidly developing new research area is to develop the detailed understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases, some of which may be having no clear etiology. In this way, neuroimmunology contributes to the development of new pharmacological treatments for various neurological conditions. The type of interactions involves both system, the nervous and immune systems but is not limited to the physiological functioning of both the systems in health and disease. Malfunction of any one of the system may lead to disorders, and various factors like physical, chemical, and environmental stressors which affect the system on daily basis.
The nervous and immune system has many has many interactions that defines the overall health of the person. Both the adaptive and innate immune system monitors the nervous system. Throughout the life, the immune system of a person detects and responds to changes in cell identity and neural connectivity. If there is deregulation of both adaptive and acquired immune responses or there is impairment between the two systems or if there is alterations in the deployment of innate immune mechanisms, any one of these reason can make the central nervous system (CNS) prone to autoimmunity and neurodegeneration. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an example of neuroimmunological disorder which affects many people. The features of MS are CNS inflammation, neurodegeneration and immune-mediated demyelination.
Last date updated on July, 2014