Biopharmaceuticals are the chemical entities that are used as medical drugs in the treatment of illness which are produced by using biotechnological techniques. The biopharmaceuticals basically includes the macro-molecular products like proteins, nucleic acids, etc. which are employed as protein-based (like antibodies) and or nucleic acid-based (like antisense-oligonucleotide) drugs. The microorganisms like viruses and bacteria can also be used as biopharmaceutical therapeutics and or finds its application as in vivo diagnostic purposes. This subset of biopharmaceuticals including attenuated microorganisms and or the medical products composed of cellular or tissue based matter is generally referred as biologics for example stored RBC units. The attenuated microorganisms whose virulence has been reduced are produced by means other than the direct extraction from their native biological sources as using non-engineered biological sources may pose the higher risks in its usage. The first biopharmaceutical substance produced and approved for therapeutic use was insulin via recombinant DNA technology. Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Last date updated on June, 2014