Biofilm is the layer of microbes that grow collectively on a single surface. Biofilm bacteria is the bacterial cell communities densely grow and form a layer either on a living or non-lining surface. Sinusitis, Chronic wounds, Cystic fibrosis, Atherosclerosis are some of the conditions in which biofilms are associated with. Superficial biofilms that are formed as dental plaques can be removed physically. Biofilms can grow in most extreme environments such as hot and cold. Some biofilms will be formed as a combination of both bacteria and fungi. Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014