Pharmacodynamics is the study describes what a drug does to the body, involves receptor binding (including receptor sensitivity), postreceptor effects, and chemical interactions. Pharmacodynamics, with pharmacokinetics, helps explain the relationship between the dose and response, i.e., the drug's effects. The pharmacologic response depends on the drug binding to its target. The concentration of the drug at the receptor site influences the drug's effect. A drug's pharmacodynamics can be affected by physiologic changes due to disorders, aging, or other drugs. Disorders that affect pharmacodynamic responses include genetic mutations, thyrotoxicosis, malnutrition, myasthenia gravis, Parkinson disease, and some forms of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. These disorders can change receptor binding, alter the level of binding proteins, or decrease receptor sensitivity. Aging tends to affect pharmacodynamic responses through alterations in receptor binding or in postreceptor response sensitivity. Pharmacodynamic drugâdrug interactions result in competition for receptor binding sites or alter postreceptor response.
Innovations are new idea, device or process. Innovations are the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs or existing market needs. It is proficient through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or new ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and society. Innovations are something original and novel, as a significant, new that âbreaks intoâ the market or society.
Last date updated on September, 2014