Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease characterized by the ectopic presence and growth of functional endometrial tissue, glands, and stroma, outside the uterine cavity .The disease most often affects the ovaries (up to 88% of all cases), uterine ligaments, fallopian tubes, rectum, cervical-vaginal region, and urinary tract. Urinary tract involvement is rare accounting for around 1-2% of all cases, of which 84%are found in the bladder. However, endometriosis can be encountered in other abdominal organs such as the liver, pancreas, intestinal tract, spleen, gallbladder, the abdominal wall, and even the navel. Endometriosis is classified depending on the number, size, and superficial and/or deep location of endometrial implants, plaques, endometriomas, and/or adhesions, as follows: stage I (minimal, 1-5 points), stage II (mild, 6-15 points), stage III (moderate, 16-40 points), and stage IV (severe, >40 points), following the revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine classification for Endometriosis . Exerting a gross classification, endometriotic lesions could be divided into superficial peritoneal endometriosis, deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and ovarian (cystic) endometriosis. Approximately 10% of women in reproductive age are estimated to be affected by this disease and its symptoms.
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Last date updated on June, 2014