|Epidemiology is the study that deals with the occurrence, distribution and cause of the disease in a population. In this group of people are studied rather than the individual person. Epidemiology field can be divided into two categories- descriptive epidemiology and analytic epidemiology. In descriptive epidemiology a survey is done of the population to see that which segment of the population is affected by a disorder, the changes or variations observed or mortality over time and in different locations, and this study helps in the identification of syndrome or suggest associations with risk factors. In analytic epidemiology studies are conducted to check the conclusions of descriptive surveys or laboratory observations. The collected data on diseases is then used to find those at high risk, identify the cause and take possible preventive measures, and plan new health services.
Major areas of study that comes under epidemiological study are disease etiology, outbreak investigation, biomonitoring, disease surveillance and screening, and comparisons of the effects of treatment given in clinical trials.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.