The frequency of thoraco- omphalo-ischiopagus tripus or conjoined twins (CT) is quite rare of mozygotic twinnings, and they are classified as unions of symmetrical CT. A case of conjoined twins with thoraco- omphaloischiopagus type is presented here as well as a review of differential diagnosis. The twins had two heads, two pairs of upper limbs and three lower limbs. They also shared thorax, abdomen and pelvis with a single beating heart. The earliest example of conjoined twins returns to a statue which belongs to sixth century, and now is being kept in a museum. As mentioned earlier, the frequency of conjoined twins is estimated of 1 in 50,000 to 100,000 live births , and is believed to be related to a late cleavage of embryonic disk (day 13 and over) after fertilization. Most of conjoined twins report worldwide are females. The results of the study also suggested that only 60% of conjoined twins are born alive. Furthermore, conjoined twins are often born with higher rates of abnormalities than other babies, thus survival likelihood is lower as the result. Some important hints that are highly suggestive for conjoined twins are: lack of a separating membrane, detection of other anomalies, multiple (>3) vessels in umbilical cords and fetal bodies are never seen separately on regular sonography visits. Innovations are new idea, device or process. Innovations are the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs or existing market needs. It is proficient through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or new ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and society. Innovations are something original and novel, as a significant, new that breaks into the market or society.
Last date updated on June, 2014