"More than 156 million people, over half of the U.S. population, live in the coastal zone. These areas contribute $7.9 trillion to the U.S. economy. Economic development within the coastal zone may result in the discharge of chemical contaminants into coastal ecosystems from sewage treatment plants, industrial point sources and urban and agricultural nonpoint source runoff. Aquatic monitoring programs have long measured legacy contaminants such as DDT and PCBs, but are increasingly being asked to focus on modern commercial chemicals that as a group are referred to as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs). CECs present many challenges, often because measurement methods dont yet exist nor have toxicological studies yet been conducted to place monitoring results in proper context. This challenge is exacerbated because many CECs interact with hormone systems in wildlife to affect reproduction and development in ways that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations.
High-impact journals are those considered to be highly influential in their respective fields. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on September, 2020