Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or geological materials. Mining is done using two excavation types: Surface mining and sub-surface mining. After excavation, the mineral is processed using techniques like Extractive metallurgy and Mineral processing. There are many environmental issues like erosion, loss of biodiversity and ground water contamination by chemicals from mining processes. Many companies are now enforced to follow good environmental standards.
Innovations are new idea, device or process. Innovations are the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs or existing market needs. It is proficient through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or new ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and society. Innovations are something original and novel, as a significant, new that breaks into the market or society.
Last date updated on June, 2014