Detection of microbial agents is an important impress in diseases pathogenesis. Bacterial infections play a principal role in the formation
of brown pigmented and pure cholesterol gallstones depends on cholesterol saturation and solubility. Consequently, bacterial infection
is now accepted as a precipitating factor in the pathogenesis of mixed cholesterol gallstones. Attempts to culture potentially causative bacteria
from gallstones have failed because the formation of gallstones takes a very long time, thus bacteria might be damaged or killed. Swidsinski
et al. identified E. coli and Pseudomonas in cholesterol gallstones using PCR and these bacteria were suggested as the pathogens in
cholesterol gallstone formation by Lee et al. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped,
motile micro-organism that plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, development of gastric
adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. Although H. pylori is recognized as a pathogen associated
with gastric lesions, recent studies have revealed the presence of several Helicobacter species in the hepatobiliary system. In
animals, Helicobacter species have been isolated from sites including the gastrointestinal tract, liver and biliary tree. H. hepaticus and H.
bilis have been detected in liver tissue from mice with chronic active hepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. Similarly, H. canis has been
isolated from the liver of a dog with multifocal necrotizing hepatitis.
Last date updated on June, 2021