Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by dysregulation of bone formation and breakdown leading to more porous bone and greater risk of fracture. Bone quality, not bone quantity is the greatest predictor of osteoporosis-related fracture and is defined as bone mineral density (BMD), the diagnostic measure of bone quality. BMD is calculated as the mass of the bone by the area (g/cm2).BMD accounts for 50-80% of the breaking strength of bones and remains the best predictor of fracture risk. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of fracture in older adults. A reduction of one standard deviation of BMD results in a 1.5-fold increase in relative risk of fracture at most sites and reaches nearly 3-fold in the femoral neck. The most common sites of breaks include the distal radius, vertebrae, pelvis, and femoral neck. Of all osteoporotic fractures, a break of the hip is the most devastating. Within the first six months after a hip fracture, there is a 10-20% risk of mortality and 25-33% within the year in women over 65 years.
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Last date updated on November, 2020