|Visceral surgery is a specialised branch of general surgery. Visceral surgery is surgery of internal organs. It focuses on the disorders and deformities of the viscera and mammary glands that can be treated through surgical intervention. The visceral surgeon operates benign and malignant conditions of the abdominal organs (e.g. inguinal hernias, gallstones, cancer of the colon). In addition to conventional open procedures minimal invasive techniques (laparoscopy) are becoming increasingly important. The visceral surgeon works closely with the gastroenterologist. If the latter diagnoses gall stones in a patient, the visceral surgeon removes them surgically. He also operates where tumors are found in the viscera and carries out interventions on (piles). Although he carries out most interventions laparoscopically, i.e. using an endoscope adapted for the viscera, he can also use modern laser techniques. Visceral surgery has an important role in this network of interdisciplinary and multimodal treatment options. The main goal in palliative care is to embed patients with advanced malignancies into a multimodal network of palliative treatment options to prevent tumor related complications. Many of those treatments include minimal/non-invasive options such as endoscopic procedures, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which come along with lower morbidity rates compared to open surgery. However, in the case of tumor related complications that cannot be treated by alternative procedures, surgery plays a significant role in palliation to treat or prevent tumor-related complications and to achieve a quick, long-lasting symptom control to improve and maintain the quality of life.
Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.