ECOBIOLOGY OF THE SPOT SWORDTAIL GRAPHIUM NOMIUS (ESPER) (LEPIDOPTERA: RHOPALOCERA: PAPILIONIDAE) FROM THE EASTERN GHATS OF SOUTHERN ANDHRA PRADESH
The Spot Swordtail Graphium nomius butterfly found in South and Southeast Asia that belongs to the Swallowtail family. Graphium nomius was one of the attractive Papilionidae butterflies that enliven the environment of Seshachalam Bio reserve forest, Tirupati, Southern Andhra Pradesh. The Spot Swordtail gets its name from the stunning line of distinct white spots along the margin of its wings it occurs throughout the year. It lays eggs singly on young leaves of the mast trees Polyalthia longifolia (Annonaceae), Miliusa tomentosum, Miliusa velutina. The eggs take 3-4 days to hatch. The larvae go through 5 instars over a period of 17-22 days. The pupal period is 12-13 days. The total period from egg to adult emergence spans over 32-35 days. Based on this short life cycle, and larval and pupal development success studied every month, this butterfly was multivoltine with a minimum of 7-8 broods in a year. Both CI and GR decreased with the age of larva, their average figures are 3.78 and 0.43 respectively. AD values are high (average 92%) and decreased through successive instars. Both ECD and ECI followed a similar array with an increase from instar I up to II, then a decrease up to IV and again an increase in instar V and the highest value was with fifth instar.