EVALUATING GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION PROCESSES AND DEVELOPING FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITATIVE MANAGEMENT IN PARTS OF NIGERIA
Awajiogak, Anthony Ujilea
Senior Lecturer, Head of Department, Department of Chemical/Petrochemical & Petroleum Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt, NIGERIA
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This paper details the natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities which constitute threat to the integrity of groundwater resource in towns and villages in parts of Nigeria. Parts of Niger Delta and Ibadan were considered in this study. High iron loadings from Itakpe Iron ore deposits are transferred by migration, inter aquifer exchange; absorption/adsorption processes, ion exchange to contaminate ground water in parts of Niger Delta. Salt water intrusion is enhanced by high level of industrialization (which has brought in dredging works, crude oil exploration and exploitation, complex foundation works for the construction of surface facilities). Crude oil spillages and petroleum product seepage from storage facilities contribute to groundwater pollution problems. Poor and improper waste management systems have constituted a menace to groundwater aquifer. Processes that tend to retard the rate of contaminant migration and act as mechanisms for concentration attenuation have been considered. Remediation methods and Best Management Practices (BMPs) involving integrated approach have been proposed in this paper to be applied to provide not only sufficient potable water but also reliable quality in the study areas.