Metal Ion Complex -Potential Anticancer Drug- A Review
Many metal-containing compounds have been utilized throughout history to treat a wide variety of disorders. In medicinal chemistry —traditionally dominated by organic chemistry— metal complexes have gained favor as diagnostic tools and anticancer agents. Cancer is the second most frequent cause of death in the world. The discovery of antitumor activity of cisplatin began a search for other metal complexes with cytotoxic properties against cancer cells. Organo-metallic compounds have been used in medicine for centuries. Metal complexes play essential role in pharmaceutical industry and in agriculture. The metallo-elements present in trace quantities play vital roles at the molecular level in living system. The transition metal ions are responsible for proper functioning of different enzymes. Transition metals represent the D block element which includes groups 3 - 12 on the periodic table. Their d shells are in process of filling. The partially filled d orbital in transition metals impart interesting electronic properties that can act as suitable probes in the design of anticancer agents. This property of transition metals resulted in the foundation of coordination complexes. In 1960 the anti-tumor activity of an inorganic complex cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) was discovered. Cisplatin has developed into one of the most frequently used and most effective drug for treatment of solid carcinomas. This review focuses on recent advances in development of platinum, gold, copper and ruthenium complexes as anticancer agents.