MODELING ENERGY FLOW FOR ORANGE PRODUCTION IN IRAN
|Majid Namdari*1, Ali Asadi Kangarshahi2 and Negin Akhlaghi Amiri2
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The objectives of this study were to determine energy use pattern, to obtain relationship between energy inputs and yield, and to make a sensitivity analysis in orange production in Mazandaran, Iran. The results revealed that total energy input for orange production was 62375.18 MJ ha-1; the indirect energy shared about 41% while the direct energy did 59%. Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy were 0.99, 0.52 kg MJ-1, 1.92 MJ kg-1 and -625 MJ ha-1, respectively. Econometric estimation results revealed that energy inputs of human labor, machinery, farmyard manure, chemical fertilizers, electricity and water for irrigation contributed significantly to the yield. The impact of human labor energy was found as the most important variable that influences yield followed by chemical fertilizers. The results of sensitivity analysis of the energy inputs showed that the MPP of human labor was the highest. Also, the MPP of chemicals and diesel fuel energies were found negative implying that the use of chemicals and diesel fuel energies are in excess for orange production, causing an environmental risk problem in the region.