Nanoparticle: A Promising carrier for Novel Drug Delivery
For the past few decades, there has been a considerable research interest in the area of drug delivery using particulate delivery systems as carriers for small and large molecules. Particulate systems like Nanoparticles have been used as a physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various types of drug molecules. Due to their small sizes, they exhibit unique physicochemical and biological properties like an enhanced reactive area as well as an ability to cross cell and tissue barrier, that make them a favourable carrier for novel drug delivery. They have been used to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation, restrict access of the drug to the sites and to deliver the drug at a controlled and sustained rate to the site of action. Nanoparticles have been developed as an important strategy to deliver conventional drugs, recombinant proteins, vaccines and nucleotides. Therefore nanoparticles in the pharmaceutical biotechnology sector improve the therapeutic index and provide solutions for future delivery problems for new classes of so called biotech drugs including recombinant proteins and oligonucleotides. Various polymers have been used in the formulation of Nanoparticles for drug delivery to increase therapeutic benefit and minimizing side effects. This paper aims to review various aspects of Nanoparticle formulation, characterization, effect of their characteristics and applications of nanoparticles as carrier system in the field of pharmaceuticals.