Seasonality in Buffaloes Reproduction
The buffalo is considered as sluggish breeder as the reproductive efficiency of buffalo is adversely affected by certain constraints such as late maturity, poor expression of the estrous signs particularly during summer, irregular estrous cycle, silent heat, seasonality in breeding, poor conception rate/early embryonic mortality and prolonged inter-calving interval. Buffalo reproduction in tropical and subtropical part of the world is considered as short day breeder and its reproductive efficiency is greatly and adversely influenced by biometeorological factors. However, in equatorial zone buffalo can show estrous cycle throughout the year provided adequate nutrition is provided to maintain the reproductive efficiency and become seasonally polyestrous with distance from the equator attributed to the environmental factors and photoperiod. Season of calving has a profound effect on service period. As reported in India, buffaloes calving in late winter and early summer have lower reproductive efficiency compared to those calving during other periods and calving during rainy or monsoon season had shorter anoestrus period than other season calvers.