"A pathogen can be described as anything that can produce disease. The disease caused by microorganisms such as a virus, bacterium, prion, fungus or protozoan that causes disease in its host. If the host is plant, it is described as plant pathogens. Transmission of pathogens occurs through many different routes, including airborne, direct or indirect contact, sexual contact, through blood, breast milk, or other body fluids, and through the fecal-oral route.
The plant pathogens are Fungi ex Ascomycetes ; Basidiomycetes ;Bacteria for ex Xanthomonas spp , Pseudomonas spp. ; Phytoplasmas ;plant Viruses, and Nematodes.
The Common pathogenic infection methods are Cell wall-degrading enzymes: These are used to break down the plant cell wall in order to release the nutrients inside; Toxins: These can be non-host-specific, which damage all plants, or host-specific, which cause damage only on a host plant.; Effector proteins: These can be secreted into the extracellular environment or directly into the host cell, often via the Type three secretion system. Some effectors are known to suppress host defense processes.
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Last date updated on June, 2014