Ankle osteoarthritis (OA) can cause pain and disability. Current treatment options include analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAIDs), weight loss, physical therapy, exercise, activity modification, assistive devices, local injections, and surgical treatment. The treatment goals are to reduce pain and improve function. Oral analgesics have substantial limitations because they may not provide sufficient joint pain relief and often produce intolerable drug side
effects and adverse drug interactions. Intra articular therapies with corticosteroids or viscosupplements may reduce pain, but the duration of effect is variable. There is an increasing requirement for novel treatments of OA as the aging population is expanding with many patients who are unable to or prefer not to receive surgery. Effective and safe treatments that may reduce pain and improve function yet avoid the toxic effects of medications should be fully exploited. A potential treatment option for patients may be the intra articular application of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A).
Last date updated on July, 2014