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Pulp capping is a technique used in dental restorations to prevent the dental pulp from dying, after being exposed, or nearly exposed during a cavity preparation. When dental caries are removed from a tooth, the affected and softened enamel and dentin are removed. This can lead to the pulp of the tooth either being exposed or nearly exposed which causes pulpitis. Pulpitis, in turn, can become irreversible, leading to pain and pulp necrosis, and necessitating either root canal treatment or extraction. The ultimate goal of pulp capping or stepwise caries removal is to protect a healthy dental pulp and avoid the need for root canal therapy.