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It is an obligate, pathogenic species which belongs to the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis. It was first discovered by Robert Koch in the year 1882. Mycobacterium is covered by a waxy layer on its surface due to the presence of mycolic acid. The cells are impervious to Gram’s staining (Gram negative staining) in clinical lab. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can appear red in colour on Acid fast staining.