Simulations (and models, too) are abstractions of reality. Often they deliberately emphasize one part of reality at the expense of other parts. Sometimes this is necessary due to computer power limitations. Sometimes it's done to focus your attention on an important aspect of the simulation.Simulations generally come in three styles: live, virtual and constructive. A simulation also may be a combination of two or more styles. Within these styles, simulations can be science-based (where, for example, interactions of things are observed or measured), or involve interactions with humans.A simulator is a device that may use any combination of sound, sight, motion and smell to make you feel that you are experiencing an actual situation. Some video games are good examples of low-end simulators.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on November, 2020