Spermatogenesis originates from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Development of the spermatogonial transplantation technique in 1994 provided the first functional assay to characterize SSCs. In 2000, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor was identified as a SSC self-renewal factor. This discovery not only provided a clue to understand SSC self-renewing mechanisms but also made it possible to derive germline stem (GS) cell cultures in 2003. In vitro culture of GS cells demonstrated their potential pluripotency and their utility in germline modification. However, in vivo SSC analyses have challenged the traditional concept of SSC self-renewal and have revealed their relationship with the microenvironment. Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Last date updated on July, 2014