Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease caused by the formation of biofilm on tooth surfaces. Among the oral bacteria, mutans streptococci are considered to be causative agents of dental caries. Streptococcus sobrinus as well as S. mutans are major pathogens of dental caries. Both bacteria produce water-soluble and water-insoluble glucans from sucrose, by the combined action of glucosyltransferases. The synthesis of the water-insoluble glucan is necessary for the accumulation of these cells on the tooth surface and the induction of dental caries. S. sobrinus produces a water-insoluble GTF-I. The GTF-I protein consists of two functional domains: an N-terminal sucrose-binding domain and a C-terminal glucan-binding domain. The activities of GTF-I are mediated through both catalytic and glucan-binding functions. If an effective vaccine for the oral cavity is to be designed, careful consideration must be given to the various immune responses and antigen-delivery systems. Because of the risk of needle-borne diseases associated with reuse and improper disposal of needles, needle-free delivery has become a global priority.
Nasal Administration of Glucosyltransferase-I of Streptococcus sobrinus without Adjuvant Induces Protective Immunity: Keita Watanabe, Tomomi Hashizume, Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai, Yoshiaki Akimoto and Masafumi Yamamoto
Last date updated on June, 2014