Drug-Induced Liver Injury is an adverse event that frequently leads to cessation of drug testing in clinical trials, restrictions on drug use, and drug withdrawals. Among the preclinical candidate compounds that are discontinued for organ toxicity, it is estimated that up to half are terminated due to hepatotoxicity. Existing biomarkers of liver injury provide reasonable indicators of damage; however, none of them has sufficient specificity and/or they are increased only after significant damage has occurred. New reliable biomarkers of DILI are urgently required for both clinical and preclinical pharmaceutical evaluation. Open access helps authors, who discover new DILI biomarkers, to maximize the impact of their research articles. miRNAs are short, single-stranded, non-coding RNA that were first found in Caenorhabditis elegans and are now recognized as novel agents exercising post-transcriptional control over most eukaryotic genomes. miRNAs are highly conserved among species, ranging from worms to humans, revealing their very ancient ancestry. It has been reported that miRNAs are expressed in all animal cells and have fundamental roles in cellular activities, such as development, cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, cell-cycle control, metabolism and cancer. It is estimated that ~60% of human mRNAs are regulated by miRNAs, suggesting that miRNAs might very well form another layer of the regulatory circuitry that exists in the cell. Similar to mRNA, some miRNAs are produced in cell- or tissuespecific manners. Recently, many reports concerning miRNAs related to disease have been published and suggest that miRNAs may serve as a new kind of biomarker for organ injury.
Use Circulating microRNAs as Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Xi Yang
Last date updated on June, 2014