|Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Psychologists have been working in Medical settings since the growth surge in the field following World War II. The Clinical Psychology profession growth escalated with the need and application of the newly designed empirical assessment and treatment interventions. The initial invitations in Medicine came to Psychologists from departments of Psychiatry. The recognition of the knowledge competencies (i.e., Brain & Behavior, Social Interactions, Learning, Memory, Perception) fundamental to the training of doctoral level Clinical Psychologists expanded Veteranâs Administration service first, then, medical specialties of Neurology and Physical Medicine. The integrated knowledge and skills of the Psychologist to design, implement and interpret research investigations of patientsâ behavior fortified the flourishing of Psychologists in general hospital settings. This trend of the recent twenty-five years growth of utilizing Psychologists in healthcare is due to the increasing complexity of health care. In fact, the core competencies of Psychology doctoral training include many areas congruent to medicine. They are: scientifically minded practice, intervention skills, consultation and interpersonal collaborations, supervision and professional development. Also, according to the American Psychological Association, these specialized competencies are acquired last in the training following advanced knowledge and skills.