|Habitual consumption of opium is known as opiumism. Opium which is optained from Opium Poppy is medicinally and recreationally used by mankind. Medically it is used to relieve pain. Smoking is the most common and safe way of using opium. It produces euphoria, nausea, sleepiness, âa warm fuzzyâ feeling and a sense of peace. upon withdrawal, it shows signs of many unpleasant symptoms. Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.