|A simultaneous infection with one or more diseases is called a co-infection. Mostly HIV-positive patients are co-infected with Hepatitis such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV), due to shared routes of transmission. HCV is most commonly infected than HBV. Hepatitis virus rapidly effects in HIV positive patients compared to HIV negative patients. HIV Co-infection with hepatitis put patients at higher risk of life-threatening health complications and also makes the management of HIV infection more difficult. A co-infection with tuberculosis is also one of the leading causes of death among people living with HIV. Latent TB infection will increase rapidly in the HIV positive patients as the HIV virus weakens the human immune system.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.