The increasing number of new tuberculosis (TB) cases each year, propelled by the 10% annual increase in TB incidence in sub-Saharan Africa is attributable largely to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Co-infection rates in TB-infected patients in some countries are as high as 79%.
The HIV epidemic is not merely increasing TB but is also driving a significant increase in the proportion of cases that are smear-negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary; these presentations of TB pose considerable challenges to currently available diagnostic methods and to clinical management. Even when diagnosed, HIV-positive, smear negative pulmonary TB patients have inferior treatment outcomes, including excessive early mortality. (Anochie, Philip Ifesinachi, Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection in Rural Eastern Nigeria).
Last date updated on January, 2021