|Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated neurocognitive disorders have been reported in up to 50% of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Even though screening for neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is not routinely done or recommended by current treatment guidelines, NCI is associated with HAART noncompliance and functional impairment, and is currently being linked to cerebrospinal fluid escape (positive CSF HIV RNA PCR in the setting of undetectable serum HIV RNA PCR). The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) has been validated and widely used in several countries and languages in non-HIV infected populations to screen for cognitive impairment.
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