HIV is a neurovirulent virus which causes cognitive impairment in at least 50% of individuals with HIV infection. HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) include Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI), Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (MND) and HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD). They are classified according to patient performance in neuropsychological testing as well as activities of daily living and behavioural functioning. Deficits are most commonly observed on measures of information processing speed, learning, retrieval, attention/working memory and executive functions. HIV suppression in the CNS compartment causes immune activation with inflammation and secondary neurodegeneration, which is expressed in the form of the neuropsychological deficits described.
Last date updated on August, 2021