|Mitochondrial damage is implicated in the etiology of complications of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, as well as some adverse effects associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulation of damaged mitochondrial DNA is also associated with several diseases of aging, including cancer and is implicated in metabolic, renal, bone, and neurocognitive abnormalities occurring in patients with HIV. Elevated oxidative stress increases the rate of mitochondrial DNA damage; in turn, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations further increases oxidative stress as well as cell apoptosis. The HIV virus activates mitochondrial enzymes that lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis of cells, including those of the immune system, such as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. (Marianna K Baum, Effect of GSTM1-Polymorphism on Disease Progression and Oxidative Stress in HIV Infection: Modulation by HIV/HCV Co-Infection and Alcohol Consumption).
Article is sometimes called a Scientific Article, a Peer-Reviewed Article, or a Scholarly Research Article. Together, journal articles in a particular field are often referred to as The Literature. Journal articles are most often Primary Research Articles. However, they can also be Review Articles. These types of articles have different aims and requirements. Sometimes, an article describes a new tool or method. Because articles in scientific journals are specific, meticulously cited and peer-reviewed, journal databases are the best place to look for information on previous research on your species. Without a background in the field, journal articles may be hard to understand - however, you do not need to understand an entire article to be able to get valuable information from it.