The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) and anal dysplasia is currently increasing significantly. This dysplasia is described as either high-grade anal intraepithelial (HAIN) or low-grade anal intraepithelial (LAIN). Factors that are important in such cases include epidemic infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), conditions of low systemic immunity, long use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), coexistence with preceding anal intercourse (i.e. among men who have with men, MSM) and infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). (Sylvia HeloisaArantes Cruz, Screening-Related Factors in Anal Canal Lesions in HIV-Positive Patients).
Review articles are the summary of current state of understanding on a particular research topic. They analyze or discuss research previously published by scientist and academicians rather than reporting novel research results.
Review article comes in the form of systematic reviews and literature reviews and are a form of secondary literature. Systematic reviews determine an objective list of criteria, and find all previously published original research papers that meet the criteria. They then compare the results presented in these papers. Literature reviews, by contrast, provide a summary of what the authors believe are the best and most relevant prior publications.
The concept of "review article" is separate from the concept of peer-reviewed literature. It is possible for a review to be peer-reviewed, and it is possible for a review to be non-peer-reviewed.
Last date updated on September, 2014