|Airway inflammation is a state of disturbance in the airways where the immune system responds to an apparent threat and causes swelling, itching, redness, and different side effects. Airway inflammation can occur in response to exposure to particulates like dust, toxins, allergens, and different substances. Features of the disease are reversible airflow obstruction, extensive leukocyte infiltration, mucus overproduction, airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation leading to tissue damage and remodeling. Exhaled nitric oxide is an effective biomarker for airways inflammation. Airways are highly affected in asthma, COPD, allergic rhinitis and other respiratory diseases. The airways are narrowed which is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and variable airflow obstruction. Multiple cell types such as T helper 2 cells, regulatory T cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, and parenchymal cells of the lung are involved in the pathogenesis. Chronic inflammation can possibly cause irreversible changes to the airways in the lungs.
High-impact journals are those considered to be highly influential in their respective fields. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.