|Insulin resistance is defined as the resistance of tissues to the insulin action. In the periphery it is attributed to resistance to the uptake of glucose used by the muscles, liver, kidney and other organs, while in the brain it impairs insulin signaling. Insulin resistance involves the insulin receptors and is influenced by genetic predisposition as well as environmental factors such as feeding and obesity. Insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia can precede the onset T2DM by several years. This pre-diabetic stage is responsible for vascular changes that may or may not be associated with other vascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity), which together comprise the metabolic syndrome.
The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information.The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.