|Insulin resistance is defined as the resistance of tissues to the insulin action. In the periphery it is attributed to resistance to the uptake of glucose used by the muscles, liver, kidney and other organs, while in the brain it impairs insulin signaling. Insulin resistance involves the insulin receptors and is influenced by genetic predisposition as well as environmental factors such as feeding and obesity. Insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia can precede the onset T2DM by several years. This pre-diabetic stage is responsible for vascular changes that may or may not be associated with other vascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity), which together comprise the metabolic syndrome.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.