|Insulin resistance is defined as the resistance of tissues to the insulin action. In the periphery it is attributed to resistance to the uptake of glucose used by the muscles, liver, kidney and other organs, while in the brain it impairs insulin signaling. Insulin resistance involves the insulin receptors and is influenced by genetic predisposition as well as environmental factors such as feeding and obesity. Insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia can precede the onset T2DM by several years. This pre-diabetic stage is responsible for vascular changes that may or may not be associated with other vascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity), which together comprise the metabolic syndrome.
Review articles are the summary of current state of understanding on a particular research topic. They analyze or discuss research previously published by scientist and academicians rather than reporting novel research results.
Review article comes in the form of systematic reviews and literature reviews and are a form of secondary literature. Systematic reviews determine an objective list of criteria, and find all previously published original research papers that meet the criteria. They then compare the results presented in these papers. Literature reviews, by contrast, provide a summary of what the authors believe are the best and most relevant prior publications.
The concept of "review article" is separate from the concept of peer-reviewed literature. It is possible for a review to be peer-reviewed, and it is possible for a review to be non-peer-reviewed.