|Clinical assessment scales, other assessment tools exist but are less frequently used. Skin surface topography using silicone impression-based grading is both a valid and reproducible measure of photo aging and dermal elastosis. Biopsies may be used to histological assess increases in collagen and elastin deposition or epidermal thickness but are invasive and leave scars. Newer measurement technologies include the corneometer which measures hydration of the epidermis, cutometer which measures skin elasticity, and digital programs such as VISIA which combine multispectral imaging and complexion analysis software to quantify certain characteristics of the skin topography and subsurface such as UV damage, brown spots, fine lines, texture, pore size, and redness. This review will focus on the evidence behind various novel and traditional anti aging therapies that have been popularized in recent years with emphasis on those those are strongly proven to be effective. Many novel and traditional anti aging therapies that have been popularized in recent years with emphasis on those those are strongly proven to be effective. Clinical scoring using validated assessment scales has proven to be highly reliable for the evaluation of the signs of facial aging including forehead lines, nasolabial folds, marionette lines, jawline, oral commissures, neck volume, glabellar lines, infraorbital hollow, upper cheek fullness, crowÃ¢â¬â¢s feet, lip fullness, and lip wrinkles.Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.