"Autologous Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or platelet gel is emerging as a biological tool to reduce cardiovascular reperfusion injury in animal experiments. PRP is made from an animals own whole blood (autologous). The platelets are concentrated and the release of growth factors from the platelets is induced, typically by combining the platelet concentrate with bovine thrombin and calcium. The resulting activated PRP contains a super-physiological concentration of growth factors, cytokines, and other proteins. Injecting it into the myocardium after infarction and prior to reperfusion significantly improves left ventricular mechanical function during reperfusion in vivo in rabbit hearts and promotes angiogenesis and mitogenesis in the sheep heart when injected 3 weeks after coronary ligation and evaluated 9 weeks later. In addition to the growth and healing promoting proteins, PRP provides a scaffold that traps cells such as stem cells in the region of injury giving the proteins time to help the cells differentiate into cardiac myocytes.
Several problems have so far precluded the use of activated PRP in the cardiovascular system of patients: 1) injecting a PRP that contains red blood cells into the heart may lead to thrombi that can cause stroke or myocardial infarction; 2) thrombin used to prepare PRP can cause serious bleeding abnormalities in some patients who develop antibodies against certain clotting factors as well as other adverse events 3 (thrombin, itself, causes the generation of ROS and 4) lack of a mechanism explaining the mode of action of activated PRP.
(Barbara Y. Hargrave- Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (Platelet Gel): An Appropriate Intervention for Salvaging Cardiac Myocytes under Oxidative Stress after Myocardial Infarction)."
Last date updated on January, 2021