Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal. The work may be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review.
It also spelled homoeostasis or homeostasis, is the ability of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to sustain a steady, relatively constant status of properties such as warmth or pH. It is a process in which the body's interior natural environment is kept steady, regardless of alterations in external situation. The concept was recounted by Claude Bernard and the period was later coined by Walter Bradford Cannon in 1926, 1929and 1932. Homeostasis encompasses regulation of the pH of the body-fluid at 7.365 (a measure of alkalinity and acidity). All animals furthermore regulate their body-fluid glucose, as well as the engrossment of their body-fluid. Mammals regulate their body-fluid glucose with insulin and glucagon. The human body maintains glucose levels unchanging most of the day, even after a 24-hour fast. Even during long time span of fasting, glucose grades are reduced only very slightly. Insulin, secreted by the beta units of the pancreas, effectively conveys glucose to the body's units by instructing those units to hold more of the glucose for their own use. If the glucose inside the units is high, the units will alter it to the insoluble glycogen to avert the soluble glucose from interfering with cellular metabolism.
Last date updated on January, 2021