"Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) are defined as a persistent inflammatory condition of the liver in which the biochemical and histopathological abnormalities are present over a long period of time. It encompasses a large number of conditions having different etiologies and existing on a continuum between hepatitis and cirrhosis. Patients with CLDs may suffer from specific complications of cirrhosis such as hepatic encephalopathy, ascites and variceal bleeding.
In cirrhotic patients, histologically the liver shows scarring and regeneration nodules devoid of central veins, surrounded by bands of fibrous tissues which distorts the lobular architecture. The progressive scarring of the tissue in the liver leads to altered hepatic flow and increased resistance to portal blood flow, causing portal hypertension and loss of hepatic function. Patients with cirrhosis may be either in a compensated or decompensated state. In the compensated state, the patient is asymptomatic with physical findings of enlarged liver, spleen, or both; whereas in a decompensated state, patients present with symptoms of hepatic dysfunction, portal hypertension, or both.
Chronic liver diseases can be represented as hepatocellular and cholestatic CLDs as the most common etiologies. There are many types of hepatocellular diseases ranging from infections mainly viral, autoimmune, metabolic liver diseases to cancers. The majority of liver problems are transient or acute in nature because the liver has great healing power. However, a significant percent progress to a chronic disease, of these important categories is the autoimmune hepatitis, chronic viral hepatitis and WD.
(Ibrahim NL- Study of Serum Copper and Iron in Children with Chronic Liver Diseases)."
Last date updated on January, 2021