|In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) depends on upon the procurement of mature metaphase II oocytes, fertilization and persistence of the fertilized oocyte to the cleavage or blastocyst stage of embryonic development. At the inception of IVF, fruitful fertilization was entirely reliant upon the ability of ejaculated sperm to penetrate the outer boundaries of the oocyte, with the corona radiata (outer layer of cells surrounding the oocyte) and the zonal pellucida. The zona pellucida, which is the oocyte main boundary, permits or inhibits sperm from releasing its genetic material in to the cytoplasm (ooplasm) of the oocyte.
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