|Post-testicular factors decline male fertility due to conditions that affect the male genital system after testicular sperm production and take account of defects of the genital tract as well as problems in ejaculation: Vas deferens obstruction Lack of Vas deferens, often connected to genetic markers for Cystic Fibrosis, Infection, e.g. prostatitis, retrograde ejaculation, Ejaculatory duct obstruction, Hypospadias, Impotence.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.