Microeconomics is derived from the Greek term Â“micro,Â” meaning Â“small,Â” and economics, the mother discipline. Applied microeconomics is a sub-field of economics which uses data and econometric methods to test economic theory. It is the subspecialty of economics that strives to understand how individuals, households or consumers, and companies or producers choose to allocate their limited resources and how they arrive at those decisions in rational fashion. Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel Â“roadsÂ” towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is Â“self-archivingÂ” (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on July, 2014