"Worldwide consumption of fish is approximately 120 million metric tonnes. Of this overall production, aquacultured fish account for about 25% or 30 million metric tonnes. Aquacultureâs contribution to fish production worldwide has doubled every decade since the 1980âs and this trend promises to continue indefinitely. This is partially a consequence of the pressure being placed on wild catch fisheries and the increasing world population. Wild catch fisheries are currently reaching their maximum output. Already 25% of the wildfish stocks are considered to be overfished or depleted, while an additional 52% are considered to be fully exploited. This leaves little room for expansion of the wild catch to meet rising demand. As aquaculture is expected to supply more of the high quality protein needed for the earthâs rising population, the degree of intensification of industrial aquaculture management methods will put additional strains on the health of the animals in the system.
Arun K. Dhar; Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Oral Vaccines against Viral Diseases of Fish" Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on August, 2020